Aren't You Really, Really Glad YOU'VE Taken Control Of How Much Of YOUR Money Washington Gets To Spend, Just As The Founders Intended?
Most Disturbing Betrayal
Resistance to tyrants is
obedience to God.
ELSEWHERE ON THIS PAGE I'M SHARING an essay by Theo Caldwell titled, 'Of Course
NSA Mass Surveillance Is Illegal'. It's a great piece of writing, which I
thoroughly enjoyed. I hope you will enjoy it, too.
One of the virtues of Caldwell's piece is its proper emphasis of the
inherent simplicity and straightforward character required of anything meant
to pass as "law" in America. As Caldwell puts it,
moral matter, there is little defense for the NSA’s ubiquitous snooping.
At times, the edification of law by morality is clear. It is often noted
that murder is not wrong because it is illegal; it is illegal because it
is wrong. Nevertheless, there is frequently a chasm between what is
legal and what is right.
In such cases as these, there’s always some Harvard Law legerdemain,
mystifying to the rest of us rubes, whereby the plain language of the
Constitution somehow doesn’t mean what it says and, if only we’d read
the Nosey vs. Parker decision, we’d appreciate the applicable precedent.
Nuts to that. America aspires to have a citizen government, not a
lawyerly oligarchy. Yet time and again, from the wells of Congress or
across the airwaves, self-styled experts defend the indefensible to us,
in slow and measured tones, as though they were explaining civics to a
small child, or a Golden Retriever.
Nuts to that, indeed. This sound expression of disdain for "Harvard Law
legerdemain" reminds me of Thomas Jefferson's admonition, "A free people
claim their rights as derived from the laws of nature, and not as the gift
of their chief magistrate." Americans don't look for "official approval"
for the nature and primacy of their rights.
In fact, Americans have it exactly the other way around. We measure the
lawfulness of our magistrates by the degree to which they obediently
acknowledge and respect what WE have decided are our rights.
HOWEVER, CALDWELL'S WORDS PROMPT another, less happy, thought, as well.
It is certainly absurd to let ourselves be swayed to tolerate (or
misunderstand) the violation of our rights due to the pronouncements of
magistrates. But does this absurdity not pale in comparison to the much more
deeply-shameful absurdity of relinquishing our rights and our power to the
lusts of avaricious political operatives, like a small child or a Golden
Retriever, WHEN EVEN THE PRONOUNCEMENTS OF THE MAGISTRATES ARE IN OUR
Frankly, I can't think of words with which to adequately discuss this depth
of slavish infantilism. In the matter of the limits on federal taxing
power-- a matter of nearly incalculable significance to the health of our
governmental structure and our own individual well-being-- a massive body of
authority stands foursquare and unambiguous on the side of the liberating
truth, with nothing at all standing against it. And yet, in a stunning and
deeply-disturbing betrayal of the sacrifices of our Founders to impose just
those limits, many Americans lie paralyzed like helpless sheep while their
law and their rights are ignored and evaded by mere bureaucrats.
As Caldwell observes, the deep assault on the Fourth Amendment is supported
by a mountain of elaborate briefs and rulings by secret courts and by the
Supreme Court, all purporting to justify and authorize the Amendment's
evisceration. There can be some forgiveness of those who imagine that those
writing these briefs and rulings are well-intentioned and competent, and
therefore let themselves be persuaded that, however contrary to common sense
and plain reading of the amendment they manifestly are, there must be some
legitimate basis for them, and thus for the exercise of power they purport
But in stark contrast to these circumstances by which past tolerance of
Fourth Amendment violations can be somewhat forgiven, the legal history and
doctrinal circumstances of the "income" tax offer no such defense for
Americans who have failed to meet their civic responsibilities. In the case
of the "income" tax, every single high court ruling on the subject squarely
supports what is revealed in
about the nature and limits of that tax.
Unlike any other controversial subject involving the scope of governmental
authority, in the case of the "income" tax, and the general limited nature
of federal taxing power to which it conforms, both the rules of simplicity
and individual authority over the nature of legitimate law AND the "Harvard
Law" rulings stand with the liberty and the people. Yet most people STILL
sit on their hands, with pacifiers or chew-toys firmly lodged in their
I know the adoption of the term "income" for the limited class of things
subject to the tax was enormously clever, and understandably effective in
clouding some peoples' minds. This is especially so in light of the fact
that a tax on the all-inclusive class described by the common WORD 'income'
has always been recognized as a direct tax, and thus those who don't
understand the special meaning of the TERM "income" are seduced into
imagining that judicial rulings upholding the tax are actually upholding an
unapportioned, direct tax on "all that comes in".
But when the Supreme Court repeatedly and specifically says THIS IS NOT
TRUE, I have to wonder if those who persist in misunderstanding don't
actually just WANT to not understand, in subordination to some deep-rooted
ANYWAY, I AM STILL UNWILLING TO STAND BY AND WATCH this betrayal of our
American heritage proceed un-denounced and unimpeded. I cling to the
mitigating suspicion that despite my best efforts thus far many Americans
have still not actually SEEN all the rulings to which I refer.
In the hope that my suspicion is sound, I'm going to append below a
selection of those authorities. These are taken from one of the "explanation
of terms" pages attached as a comprehension aid to the true history of the
16th Amendment posted
Perhaps those who have overlooked this material thus far will be prompted by
it to read the rest and learn the whole truth. Perhaps those folks will then
become faithful heirs to the vision and bequest of their forebears by virtue
of which America once was (and can again be) the most liberty-friendly and
prosperous place in human history.
The Income Tax Is An Excise, And Excise Taxes Are
"[T]axation on income [is] in its nature an excise..."
"I hereby certify that the following is a true and faithful
statement of the gains, profits, or income of _____ _____, of
the _____ of _____, in the county of _____, and State of _____,
whether derived from any kind of property, rents, interest,
dividends, salary, or from any profession, trade, employment, or
vocation, or from any other source whatever, from the 1st day of
January to the 31st day of December, 1862, both days inclusive,
and subject to an income tax under the excise laws of the United
"The income tax... ...is an excise tax with respect to certain
activities and privileges which is measured by reference to the
income which they produce. The income is not the subject of the
tax; it is the basis for determining the amount of tax.”
"The 'Government' is an abstraction, and its possession of
property largely constructive. Actual possession and custody of
Government property nearly always are in someone who is not
himself the Government but acts in its behalf and for its
purposes. He may be an officer, an agent, or a contractor. His
personal advantages from the relationship by way of salary,
profit, or beneficial personal use of the property may be
Case law recognizes no distinction between a privilege tax and
an excise tax. See Bank of Commerce & Trust Co. v. Senter, 260
S.W. 144, 148 (Tenn. 1924) (“Whether the tax be characterized in
the statute as a privilege tax or an excise tax is but a choice
of synonymous words, for an excise tax is an indirect or
privilege tax.”); American Airways, Inc. v. Wallace, 57 F.2d
877, 880 (M.D. Tenn. 1937) (“The terms ‘excise’ tax and
privilege’ tax are synonymous and the two are often used
interchangeably.”); see also 71 AM JUR. 2d State and Local
Taxation §24, (“The term ‘excise tax’ is synonymous with
‘privilege tax,’ and the two have been used interchangeably.
Whether a tax is characterized in the statute imposing it as a
privilege tax or an excise tax is merely a choice of synonymous
words, for an excise tax is a privilege tax.”) Thus, the excise
tax now before us is, by more complete description, purportedly
an excise upon a particular privilege, assessed according to the
quantity of substance possessed in enjoyment of such privilege.
“PRIVILEGE: A particular benefit or advantage enjoyed by a
person, company, or class beyond the common advantages of others
citizens. An exceptional or extraordinary power of exemption. A
particular right, advantage, exemption, power, franchise, or
immunity held by a person or class, not generally possessed by
THE “PRIVILEGE EXCISE” PRINCIPLE, AND THE WAY IT PLAYS OUT, is very
simple. For the government to be able to charge an indirect,
non-apportioned fee (tax) for engaging in an activity, the activity
must be one done by permission of the government, rather than
anything done by right (for which one obviously can’t be charged).
This makes “the things done” for which the fee can be charged
necessarily and inherently an exercise of privilege.
To put it another way, if you can’t do a thing without paying the
government for doing it, doing it is a privilege, and by permission
only. When you pay the tax, you’re paying for the privilege of [x],
in the most basic sense of that expression. The reciprocal, of
course, is that such a tax can’t apply to things for which you don’t
need government permission (like trading your labor for pay with
anyone except the feds, or engaging in any other economic activity
not involving federal stuff).
“Since the right to receive [commonly-defined] income or
earnings is a right belonging to every person, this right cannot
be taxed as privilege.”
"[Although the Legislature may declare as privileges and tax as
such for State revenue purposes those pursuits and occupations
that are not matters of common right], the Legislature has no
power to declare as a privilege and tax for revenue purposes
occupations that are of common right."
“The right to engage in an employment, to carry on a business,
or pursue an occupation or profession not in itself hurtful or
conducted in a manner injurious to the public, is a common
right, which, under our Constitution, as construed by all our
former decisions, can neither be prohibited nor hampered by
laying a tax for State revenue on the occupation, employment,
business or profession. ... Thousands of individuals in this
State carry on their occupations as above defined who derive no
income whatever therefrom. But, where an income is derived from
any occupation, business, profession or employment, then the
Legislature may lay thereon a tax...”
“The right to follow any of the common occupations of life is an
“It has been well said that 'the property which every man has in
his own labor, as it is the original foundation of all other
property, so it is the most sacred and inviolable. The patrimony
of the poor man lies in the strength and dexterity of his own
hands, and to hinder his employing this strength and dexterity
in what manner he thinks proper, without injury to his neighbor,
is a plain violation of this most sacred property’.”
”Included in the right of personal liberty and the right of
private property- partaking of the nature of each- is the right
to make contracts for the acquisition of property. Chief among
such contracts is that of personal employment, by which labor
and other services are exchanged for money or other forms of
So, the receipts subject to the federal excise (the "income" in the
federal income tax) are those produced through the exercise of
certain federal privileges. Just like the name says, it’s a
federal income tax.
Then GET BUSY!! This liberating information doesn't spread itself. It has no
way to email itself to your local newspaper editor, or to your "Human
Resources" department, or your CPA, or your congressman, with a cover letter
insisting that it get read in its entirety, linked attachments, notes,
everything (or any way to print itself in its entirety and send itself to
folks like this via snail-mail).
If you don't, the state keeps getting all the money it wants from the vast
majority of Americans who haven't a clue. It remains able to finance the
army of DOJ attorneys who spend their well-paid days concocting "Harvard
Law" legerdemain with which they justify
the trashing of the Fourth Amendment and all the rest of our law (and
financing the army of spies who are doing the trashing, as well).
If you don't, America-- the noble experiment-- continues its death spiral
into totalitarian darkness, no matter what gets done about the
THE CHOICE TO KEEP FAITH WITH THE FOUNDERS!!
"It does not take a majority to prevail... but rather an irate,
tireless minority, keen on setting brushfires of freedom in the minds of
The Actual Law Behind The
Income-Tax Summons And Examination Authorities
MANY OF YOU IN THE
CtC COMMUNITY have equipped yourselves with the
Companion CD, and its rich collection of research and
analysis resources. I trust that everyone has found the
materials included to be useful and informative.
Among those materials on the disk are the very significant
"derivation tables" produced by Congress to specify the
actual statutes reflected (with varying degrees of accuracy
and clarity) in the current Title 26 of the United States
Code. These tables are accompanied by a guide explaining how
they are to be used, and everyone should be using them to
drill-down on important nuances of particular sections of
Everyone should also be using the tables (in concert with
the comprehensive body of statutes provided on the disk) to
uncover the many sections of the current code which are very
misleading in their representations of the actual law. It
behooves anyone concerned with the liberating truth about
the tax to learn what these misrepresented laws actually
say, thereby ensuring the accuracy of their own
understanding and equipping themselves to share it with
others not yet enjoying the benefits of a
CtC education, and to make use of it in legal contests,
TWO OF THE MOST SIGNIFICANT AND BROADLY-MISAPPLIED aspects
of the "income" tax are the "summons" and "examination"
powers. As part of my new program of posting my own research
compilations for the convenience of the community, this week
I've uploaded the compiled enactments related to the summons
and examination powers, along with some analysis and
observations. Find the compilation
Some additional discussion of this subject and its relationship
to section 93 of the original income tax act can be found
We each have our reasons, and our story. It's time, and it's needed, for
you to share yours with the world.
Everyone's failure to step up and fulfill
this simple request is really getting to me, now...
"The day we see truth and do not speak is the
day we begin to die."
-Martin Luther King, Jr.
What does it
Is it simply
because no moral and upstanding person has any choice when it comes to
telling the truth over his or her signature, whether on tax forms or
Is it recognition of the critical importance of the rule of law,
and the knowledge that if everybody leaves its caretaking to someone else,
it will soon be lost to us completely?
Is it the money?
just simple respect for your own rights as a human being, who is not and
cannot be not involuntarily subordinated to others?
Maybe it's just
simple respect for your general civic responsibility to be the grown-up and
enforce frugality and restraint on a big, powerful creature of our own devising
which otherwise is like a badly-raised teenage boy given whiskey and car keys
and let loose on the road to wreak havoc?
Or is it, perhaps,
a more acute anxiety that if our bonfire of a state isn't damped, and quickly,
it'll soon burn down the house around us all?
What IS it that
firms up your jaw and stiffens your resolve?
It's time to
take off the bushel and share your light!
I would like
you to think about what it is that motivates you for a few moments (or all
day, if you like), and then send me your thoughts. I want to put YOUR reasons to work inspiring folks who
don't yet understand what this is all about.
In this day
and age, the most effective way
for you to share your thinking
for the benefit of others is to video-record yourself talking about how you
feel, and explaining what inspires and motivates YOU.
All you need is a
webcam or cell-phone equipped with a camera. If you don't have, or know how to
use, one of these, have a friend help.
If needed, write a little script for yourself. Better, though, to just speak
extemporaneously, after spending a little time sorting out your thoughts and
getting down into your heart.
Keep yourself to
no more than 2 or 3 minutes,
and keep in mind that the purpose is not to educate, but to
INSPIRE, ENCOURAGE and ENERGIZE. Your video will be one of many to be shared.
feel any obligation to be profound, and you shouldn't try to explain
anything about the law, other than to say that you have read it and you know
it's on your side. You just need to be sincere, and uplifting. Your object
is to make your audience want to have what you have, and to be where you are
in your heart.
Keep in mind that you're speaking to an
audience that doesn't yet know ANYTHING about the subject, and whose first
reaction is, "This must be illegal; this must be dangerous; this is too good to
be true." You want to pull that audience right past such things, and
straight to a focus on truth, morality, and our American heritage of liberty
and the rule of law.
INSPIRE, ENCOURAGE, ENERGIZE.
Speak about rights. Speak about morality, and the obligation of a grown-up
and responsible person to speak the truth and to enforce the Constitution. Speak
about everyone's duty
to give to God what is God's, always, and to Caesar only
what is really Caesar's. Speak of your obligation to respect yourself, and to
look out for the current and future well-being of your children and your fellow
If you have had victories, describe them.
Better still, show them, if possible.
Be clear about
just what you accomplished: EVERYTHING
back-- Social Security, Medicare and all; a "notice of deficiency" closing
notice; an on-paper agreement or acknowledgment that your earnings weren't
subject to the tax and everything withheld or paid-in was an "overpayment";
a transcript showing all $0s; or whatever happened.
When you speak of state victories, name the state. If you had to
overcome balkiness from a tax agency before winning any victory, describe that,
purpose is to INSPIRE, ENCOURAGE and
If you're dealing with ongoing balkiness, describe that,
too, if you wish-- but be sure to explain why you're not discouraged, and why you are not
standing down, not slinking back into the barn, and not choosing to endorse the lies.
Mention what you do for a living, whether you're a doctor, homemaker, lawyer,
trucker, IT guy or gal, or a retiree or student. Help people understand that the
company of grown-up activist Americans they are being invited to join cuts
across all demographics and all interests-- with the common denominator being
respect for the law and love of the principles on which this great country was
your chance to get a LOT accomplished.
We've all had
frustrating occasions of trying to explain all this to a friend, neighbor,
family member or co-worker, only to pile up against the wall of a mind not
yet ready to listen and learn. Here is your chance to address a
self-selected audience of folks who have themselves decided that it's time
for them to begin paying attention, and have clicked on your testimonial for
exactly that reason.
make and send those videos right away! The restoration of institutional
respect for individual rights and the rule of law depends on enough
individuals insisting upon it. Do your part to let those starting to rub the
sleep from their eyes know that there is a community already waiting for their
fellowship with open arms and open hearts and shining spirits.
IN ANOTHER ARTICLE ON THIS PAGE I SPOKE OF AMERICAN HERO EDWARD
SNOWDEN, who is now rightly celebrated for his efforts at
spreading an important truth. I hope YOU are doing YOUR
part at being an American Hero by spreading
far and wide! Anything and everything must be done to get it into a
state of viral distribution across America.
I'm asking you to help me with this by very purposefully sending
this link to every single person you can, with a little
note from yourself urging your correspondents to read the file,
study it, and verify for themselves each assertion made and each
fact cited. Urge your correspondent to let what is learned
thereby percolate and settle in and begin shining its
transformational light on his or her mental landscape, and in
the meantime, to PASS IT ALONG TO OTHERS in the same way!
It is critically-important that all Americans regain their
once-common understanding that even after 1913, capitations-- taxes on
undistinguished, commonplace revenues and/or the activities that
produce them-- remain subject to the apportionment rule, and
that the income tax is not in conflict with that fact, being NOT
a tax on undistinguished, commonplace revenues and/or the
activities that produce them (however misleadingly worded parts
of the tax law may be, and however routinely misapplied at the
expense of the uneducated, apathetic or intimidated the tax may
have been over the last 70 years).
Seriously, my friend. Even if you never do "action items",
please do this one.
Right now. Without fail. Please.
You may not recognize how doing this will make any difference. I
tell you, it will make ALL the difference.
This document is the anti-body to all the germs of error,
disinformation and misunderstanding that allow the "ignorance
tax" to persist. It needs to be given a chance to take root in
as many minds as possible-- especially those NOT in the
In many of these minds, perhaps, this truth anti-body will
wither for lack of a hospitable environment. But in just as
many, it will flourish and bloom, and those folks will become
the patient and innovative teachers of others.
Pleas help me with this oh-so-important project.
P. S. I know a lot of folks out there have
self-defeating notions planted in their minds about how
clearing up confusion about the "income tax" won't
matter, "'Cause they'll just pay for all the badness
with inflation, man!" or whatever.
No, they won't.
If "they" could do that and survive politically, (and
weren't getting a whole lot more out of the
maladministration of the "income tax" than just a couple
of trillion dollars a year, as well), the tax would've
been dropped with a grimace and without a backward
glance like the universally-hated thing that it is, at
least forty years ago. This "they'll just inflate" thing
could only be said by someone not old enough (or alive
at all) during the 1970s when we had a test of just how
Americans would tolerate real inflation...
(Not that we're going to be spared getting a good dose
of inflation soon anyway, you understand, unless we very
quickly shrink the state down so small that it no longer
has the resources to quash the emergence of free and
valid currencies. This will only happen by Americans
reclaiming individual control of their resources, as is
relied upon by the framers in their design for a
meaningfully-Constitutionally-limited republic-- and
that, of course, is what
document is all about.)
The misunderstanding of the income tax is the thoroughly
cultivated thing that it is (and anyone reading through
document will come to understand
just how diligent is that cultivation) BECAUSE THE
MISAPPLIED TAX IS THE INDISPENSABLE LIFEBLOOD OF THE
UNRESTRAINED STATE. The state knows this well.
Indeed, the reason the truth about the tax is hedged
about with a more enormous army of lies (and
constantly-recruited "stakeholding" defenders) than any
other organ of the state is because it is so vital to
Leviathan's excesses, ambitions and survival. It is the
heart of the monster.
document is the monster's bane.
Your efforts to spread this shaft of illuminating,
inspiring and disinfecting sunlight will do more for
your future well-being and that of your children than
anything else you could do.
"I am only one, but I am one. I cannot do everything, but I can
do something. What I can do, I should do and, with the help of
God, I will do."
(...and every other person who ever really deserved liberty)
decision of Federal Judge Richard Leon, that the
National Security Agency’s bulk collection of Americans’
communication records does violence to the Constitution,
demonstrates a rare convergence of elite jurisprudence and
While this is by no means the last word on the matter –
Judge Leon stayed his own ruling, noting that the debate
will likely end up before the Supreme Court – it is
encouraging to see prominent legal minds alight upon the
self-evident conclusion that mass surveillance of Americans
is very wrong.
The propriety of the NSA’s conduct is not a difficult
question. What is the meaning of life? Does ensoulment occur
at inception? What is the appeal of white chocolate? These
are difficult questions.
Should the government of a supposedly free country help
itself to the private communications of its citizens? That’s
Ah, but they say, we are at war! Always, it seems, we are at
war – with drugs, with poverty, with terror, with common
sense. (Herewith, I propose America’s next domestic
battleground: a War on Bureaucracy). The NSA’s data
collection, like the
militarization of police or the TSA’s
busy hands, supposedly bolsters the noble campaign to
This is rhubarb of the first order. The average American,
going about his daily business, has more to fear from
cops or “Knockout
Game” enthusiasts than from al-Qaeda. And increasingly,
he has more to fear from his own federal government – the
most powerful and omniscient force on the planet – than from
all of these combined.
Getting Free Of The "Income" Tax Scheme Is As Easy As Falling Off A
To get an idea of how today's "income" tax scheme works, try this
Think of the federal government as a guy named Bob, who lives down
the street from you in a town that is really big on bicycles. Bikes get used for commuting, deliveries, shopping, etc.. In
fact, other than walking, bicycles are the exclusive form of
transportation in your town.
Your neighbor Bob has a by-the-mile bicycle-renting business--
"Bob's Bicycles". Bob's Bicycles is far and away the biggest
business in town.
Part of Bob’s success is because he does a lot of contract business. However, Bob doesn't just get paid by riders who have signed an
agreement with him, or even just those using Bob's bikes. Bob
gets something every time anybody in town does any riding at all,
through an odd combination of circumstances that took many years to
Here's how it happened...
Bob's Bicycles was launched long ago by the great grandfather of the
present Bob (Bob IV). Great Grandpa Bob started out not only
with a main location for his contract business-- he also had the
bright idea of setting up spots around town where he parked some of
his bikes for use by the more occasional rider, on an "honor
system". Anyone could take and use one of these bikes, but
they were expected to keep track of their mileage, and send Bob a
"1040 Mileage Ridden/Rent Due Form" (and the appropriate rent),
periodically. The initial design of the form was like this:
I, ______________, rode a
Bob's Bicycle a total of _____ miles this year.
At Bob's rental rate of
$.15 per mile, I owe Bob $______
I said that Great Grandpa Bob planned to deal with these occasional
riders on the "honor system", and that's true. But he liked
his money, too, and didn't want to miss anything that was due him. So, after setting up the "self-serve" locations, Great Grandpa Bob
went around handing out "W-2, 1099 or K-1 Rider Reporting Forms" to
every other business in town. The forms-- accompanied by
notices that if Bob didn't get his rent from someone riding a
bicycle in connection with any business, he would sue the company
CtC Warrior SanDiegoScott has put together a great little 20-question quiz to test your knowledge of the law regarding the United States "income" tax. Test yourself, test your friends and family! Test your accountant and tax attorney, and help them learn the liberating truth!!
A "Pragmatic" Perspective On The Tax And The Rule Of Law
Hey, don't bother me with that "morality" argument, and all that stuff about "upholding the rule of law". I'm a pragmatist. I'm just interested in looking out for "numero uno", and living my life without any hassles from the IRS!
So I'm okay with submissively letting the government:
take 45% of my earnings;
habituate itself to the conveniences of "creativity" in the writing of laws and the behavior of its officers in courtrooms in order to take that wealth from me with an appearance of legitimacy;
use my money to mess with foreigners on behalf of special interests, engendering hatred and contempt of all Americans-- including me;
use my money to finance an army of bureaucrats who rule my life for the benefit of themselves and their special-interest clients;
use my money to pay for an army of lawyers who will sue me or prosecute me if I try to make my own choices about who works for me and on what terms; about what I say-- and when, and how; about what I do with my own property; about whether I'm equipped to defend myself and those I love; and about how I raise and educate my children;
-- just as long as I'm left alone, dude!
To suffer abuse without complaint or struggle is to suffer it
nonetheless-- but to suffer it without the amelioration of dignity and
If each person receiving this newsletter each week distributed as few as 100 of any of the great outreach tools featured here to co-workers, friends, neighbors and family members (or just strangers on the street, in the mall, etc...), we could have SEVERAL MILLION new Americans suddenly introduced to the liberating truth about the tax!
When directed to a page by topic or link, read everything.
I know that this can mean the investment of a lot of time, attention and effort, but although some may imagine otherwise, I don't write as much as I do because I can't think of any other way to spend my time...
Furthermore, when you encounter a hyperlink within, or associated with, the text you are reading, follow it!
It is pretty common these days for web-based material to be littered with hyperlinks. Sometimes the purpose is to provide definitions or examples, in order to ensure that folks reading the original material aren't presented with a word or reference which they don't understand. Sometimes the links lead to illustrations pertinent to the original text.
It is common-- and perfectly understandable-- for folks who are confident that they are familiar with language or references within the main text they are reading to get in the habit of skipping over included links. I do it all the time, myself!
However, I very rarely include links for definitional or explanatory purposes; and when I DO make a link out of text in one page it is generally to another self-contained page, rather than merely illustrative material. These other pages contain material the clear understanding of which I deem highly important for the proper and complete understanding of the original page. (Links to CtC, the Victories pages, CtC Warriors and so on are obvious exceptions to this general rule. On the other hand, a link to the victory Highlights or 'Every Which Way But Loose' pages, which might seem like such exceptions, are not. The special selection of victories on those pages, and the filed docs and tax-agency correspondences included therewith, themselves constitute highly instructive material which merits careful attention. Thus care needs to be taken in all cases.)
Please make a habit of clicking on all provided links and at least looking briefly to ensure that the linked page is one with which you are completely familiar from another study session.
Finally, please keep in mind that, annoying though it may seem at first blush (but not, I trust, upon reflection), I constantly tweak material already posted. Obviously this doesn't mean that every page is in flux at all times, but it does mean that if you are directed to a page that IS familiar, it's worthwhile to read it through again if it's been a
while since your last having done so.